Article 1.1.1 – DEFINITIONS
This article contains only those definitions essential to the proper application of this Code. It is not intended to include commonly defined general terms or commonly defined technical terms from related codes and standards. In general, only those terms that are used in two or more articles are defined in Article 1.1. Other definitions are included in the article in which they are used but may be referenced in Article 1.1.
Part 1.1.1 of this article contains definitions intended to apply wherever the terms are used throughout this Code. Part 1.1.2 contains definitions applicable only to the parts of articles specifically covering installations and equipment operating at over 1000 volts, nominal.
Accessible (as applied to equipment).Admitting close approach; not guarded by locked doors, elevation, or other effective means.
Accessible (as applied to wiring methods).Capable of being removed or exposed without damaging the building structure or finish or not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of the building.
Accessible, Readily (Readily Accessible).Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to take actions such as to use tools (other than keys), to climb over or under, to remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, and so forth.
FPN: Use of keys is a common practice under controlled or supervised conditions and a common alternative to the ready access requirements under such supervised conditions as provided elsewhere in the NEC.
Adjustable Speed Drive. Power conversion equipment that provides a means of adjusting the speed of an electric motor.
FPN: A variable frequency drive is one type of electronic adjustable speed drive that controls the rotational speed of an ac electric motor by controlling the frequency and voltage of the electrical power supplied to the motor.
Ampacity.The current, in amperes, that a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.
Appliance.Utilization equipment, generally other than industrial, that is normally built in standardized sizes or types and is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions such as clothes washing, air conditioning, food mixing, deep frying, and so forth.
Approved. Equipment and materials, and installation, testing and commissioning methods, recognized as acceptable by local and international standards-setting organizations – properly equipped and qualified for testing, inspections of the run of goods at factories, and service-value determination through field inspections – and/or as permitted by relevant and applicable government regulatory codes.
FPN: An example of government regulatory codes are the Philippine Electrical Code, Part 1 and Part 2.
Askarel. A generic term for a group of nonflammable synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons used as electrical insulating media.
FPN: Askarels of various compositional types are used. Under arcing conditions, the gases produced, while consisting predominantly of noncombustible hydrogen chloride, can include varying amounts of combustible gases, depending on the askarel type.
Associated Apparatus [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Apparatus in which the circuits are not necessarily intrinsically safe themselves but that affects the energy in the intrinsically safe circuits and is relied on to maintain intrinsic safety. Such apparatus is one of the following:
- Electrical apparatus that has an alternative type of protection for use in the appropriate hazardous (classified) location
- Electrical apparatus not so protected that shall not be used within a hazardous(classified) location
FPN No.1: Associated apparatus has identified intrinsically safe connections for intrinsically safe apparatus and also may have connections for nonintrinsically safe apparatus.
FPN No.2: An example of associated apparatus is an intrinsic safety barrier, which is a network designed to limit the energy (voltage and current) available to the protected circuit in the hazardous (classified) location, under specified fault conditions.
Associated Nonincendive Field Wiring Apparatus [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Apparatus in which the circuits are not necessarily nonincendive themselves but affect the energy in nonincendive field wiring circuits and are relied upon to maintain nonincendive energy levels. Such apparatus are one of the following:
- Electrical apparatus that has an alternative type of protection for use in the appropriate hazardous (classified) location
- Electrical apparatus not so protected that shall not be used in a hazardous (classified) location
FPN: Associated nonincendive field wiring apparatus has designated associated nonincendive field wiring apparatus connections for nonincendive field wiring apparatus and may also have connections for other electrical apparatus.
Attachment Plug (Plug Cap) (Plug).A device that, by insertion in a receptacle, establishes a connection between the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle.
Automatic. Performing a function without the necessity of human intervention.
Bathroom. An area including a basin with one or more of the following: a toilet, a tub, or a shower.
Battery System. Interconnected battery subsystems consisting of one or more storage batteries and battery chargers, and can include inverters, converters, and associated electrical equipment.
Bonded (Bonding). Connected to establish electrical continuity and conductivity.
Bonding Conductor or Jumper. A reliable conductor to ensure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected.
Bonding Jumper, Equipment.The connection between two or more portions of the equipment grounding conductor.
Bonding Jumper, Main.The connection between the grounded circuit conductor and the equipment grounding conductor at the service.
Bonding Jumper, System.The connection between the grounded circuit conductor and the equipment grounding conductor at a separately derived system.
Branch Circuit.The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).
Branch Circuit, Appliance.A branch circuit that supplies energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be connected and that has no permanently connected luminaires (lighting fixtures) that are not a part of an appliance.
Branch Circuit, General-Purpose.A branch circuit that supplies two or more receptacles or outlets for lighting and appliances.
Branch Circuit, Individual.A branch circuit that supplies only one utilization equipment.
Branch Circuit, Multiwire.A branch circuit that consists of two or more ungrounded conductors that have a voltage between them, and a grounded conductor that has equal voltage between it and each ungrounded conductor of the circuit and that is connected to the neutral or grounded conductor of the system.
Building. A structure that stands alone or that is separated from adjoining structures by fire walls.
Building Official. The government official appointed by the secretary of the Department of Public Works and who is responsible for enforcing the provisions of the National Building Code of the Philippines (NBC) created under Presidential Decree 1096 (PD 1096) and its Implementing Rules and Regulations, and charged with the duties of issuing building permits, notices and certificates.
Building Official/EE, Office of the. A licensed electrical practitioner employed in the Office of the Building Official responsible for overseeing electrical installations and equipment for compliance to provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code, Part 1 (PEC1), and for the approval of electrical permits and certificates issuances. Also referred to as OBO/EE in this Code.
FPN: A licensed electrical practitioner is a Registered Master Electrician (RME), Registered Electrical Engineer (REE) or Professional Electrical Engineer (PEE)under Republic Act 7920 or national electrical engineering law with their respective duties and responsibilities. See definition of Licensed Electrical Practitioner.
Cabinet. An enclosure that is designed for either surface mounting or flush mounting and is provided with a frame, mat, or trim in which a swinging door or doors are or can be hung.
Cable Routing Assembly. A single channel or connected multiple channels, as well as associated fittings, forming a structural system that is used to support and route communications wires and cables, optical fiber cables, data cables, associated with information technology and communications equipment, Class 2, Class 3, and Type PLTC cables, and power-limited fire alarm cables in plenum, riser, and general-purpose applications.
Charge Controller. Equipment that controls dc voltage or dc current, or both, and that is used to charge a battery or other energy storage device.
Circuit Breaker. A device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself when properly applied within its rating.
FPN: The automatic opening means can be integral, direct acting with the circuit breaker, or remote from the circuit breaker when properly applied within its rating.
Adjustable (as applied to circuit breakers). A qualifying term indicating that the circuit breaker can be set to trip at various values of current, time, or both, within a predetermined range.
Instantaneous Trip (as applied to circuit breakers). A qualifying term indicating that no delay is purposely introduced in the tripping action of the circuit breaker.
Inverse Time (as applied to circuit breakers).A qualifying term indicating that there is purposely introduced a delay in the tripping action of the circuit breaker, which delay decreases as the magnitude of the current increases.
Nonadjustable (as applied to circuit breakers). A qualifying term indicating that the circuit breaker does not have any adjustment to alter the value of current at which it will trip or the time required for its operation.
Setting (of circuit breakers). The value of current, time, or both, at which an adjustable circuit breaker is set to trip.
Clothes Closet. A nonhabitable room or space intended primarily for storage of garments and apparel.
Coaxial Cable. A cylindrical assembly composed of a conductor centered inside a metallic tube or shield, separated by a dielectric material, and usually covered by an insulating jacket.
Combustible Dust [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Dust particles that are 500 microns or smaller (i.e. material passing a U.S. No. 35 Standard Sieve as defined in ASTM E11-2015, Standard Specifications for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves), and present a fire or explosion hazard when dispersed and ignited in air.
FPN: See ASTM E1226-2012a, Standard Test Method for Explosibility of Dust Clouds, or ISO 6184-1, Explosion protection systems – Part 1 Determination of explosion indices of combustible dusts in air, for procedures for determining the explosibility of dusts.
Communications Equipment. The electronic equipment that performs the telecommunications operations for the transmission of audio, video, and data, and includes power equipment (e.g., dc converters, inverters, and batteries), technical support equipment (e.g., computers), and conductors, dedicated solely to the operation of the equipment.
FPN: As the telecommunications network transitions to a more data-centric network, computers, routers, servers, and their powering equipment, are becoming essential to the transmission of audio, video, and data and are finding increasing application in communications equipment installations.
Composite Optical Fiber Cable. A cable containing optical fibers and current-carrying electrical conductors.
Concealed. Rendered inaccessible by the structure or finish of the building. Wires in concealed raceways are considered concealed, even though they may become accessible by withdrawing them.
Conductive Optical Fiber Cable. A factory assembly of one or more optical fibers having an overall covering and containing non-current-carrying conductive member(s) such as metallic strength member(s), metallic vapor barrier(s), metallic armor or metallic sheath.
Conductor, Bare. A conductor having no covering or electrical insulation whatsoever.
Conductor, Covered. A conductor encased within material of composition or thickness that is not recognized by this Code as electrical insulation.
Conductor, Insulated. A conductor encased within material of composition and thickness that is recognized by this Code as electrical insulation.
Conduit Body.A separate portion of a conduit or tubing system that provides access through a removable cover(s) to the interior of the system at a junction of two or more sections of the system or at a terminal point of the system.
Boxes such as FS and FD or larger cast or sheet metal boxes are not classified as conduit bodies.
Connector, Pressure (Solderless). A device that establishes a connection between two or more conductors or between one or more conductors and a terminal by means of mechanical pressure and without the use of solder.
Continuous Load. A load where the maximum current is expected to continue for 3 hours or more.
Control Circuit. The circuit of a control apparatus or system that carries the electric signals directing the performance of the controller but does not carry the main power current.
Control Drawing [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. A drawing or other document provided by the manufacturer of the intrinsically safe or associated apparatus or associated nonincendive field wiring apparatus, that details the allowed interconnections between the intrinsically safe and associated apparatus or between the nonincendive field wiring apparatus or associated nonincendive field wiring apparatus.
Controller. A device or group of devices that serves to govern, in some predetermined manner, the electric power delivered to the apparatus to which it is connected.
Cooking Unit, Counter-Mounted. A cooking appliance designed for mounting in or on a counter and consisting of one or more heating elements, internal wiring, and built-in or mountable controls.
Coordination (Selective). Localization of an overcurrent condition to restrict outages to the circuit or equipment affected, accomplished by the selection and installation of overcurrent protective devices and their ratings or settings for the full range of available overcurrents, from overload to the maximum available fault current, and for the full range of overcurrent protective device opening times associated with those overcurrent.
Copper-Clad Aluminum Conductors. Conductors drawn from a copper-clad aluminum rod with the copper metallurgically bonded to an aluminum core, where copper forms a minimum of 10 percent of the cross-sectional area of a solid conductor or each strand of a stranded conductor.
Cord Connector [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. A fitting intended to terminate a cord to a box or similar device and reduce the strain at points of termination and may include an explosionproof, a dust-ignitionproof, or a flameproof seal.
Cutout Box. An enclosure designed for surface mounting that has swinging doors or covers secured directly to and telescoping with the walls of the enclosure.
Dead Front. Without live parts exposed to a person on the operating side of the equipment.
Demand Factor. The ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load of a system or the part of the system under consideration.
Device. A unit of an electrical system, other than a conductor, that is intended to carry or control but not utilize electric energy.
Disconnecting Means. A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.
Dust-Ignitionproof [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Equipment enclosed in a manner that excludes dusts and does not permit arcs, sparks, or heat otherwise generated or liberated inside of the enclosure to cause ignition of exterior accumulations or atmospheric suspensions of a specified dust on or in the vicinity of the enclosure.
FPN: For further information on dust-ignitionproof enclosures, see ANSI/UL 1202-2013, Enclosures for Electrical Equipment, and ANSI/UL 1203-2013, Explosionproof and Dust-ignitionproof Electrical Equipment for Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Dusttight. Enclosures constructed so that dust will not enter the enclosing case under specified test conditions.
FPN No.1: Enclosure Types 3, 3S, 3SX, 4, 4X, 5, 6, 6P, 12, 12K, and 13, per ANSI/NEMA 250-2014, Enclosures for Electrical Equipment, are considered dusttight and suitable for use in unclassified locations and in Class II, Division2; Class III, and Zone 22 hazardous (classified) locations.
FPN No.2: For further information, see ANSI/ISA-12.12.01-2103. Nonincendive Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Duty, Continuous. Operation at a substantially constant load for an indefinitely long time.
Duty, Intermittent. Operation for alternate intervals of (1) load and no load; or (2) load and rest; or (3) load, no load, and rest.
Duty, Periodic. Intermittent operation in which the load conditions are regularly recurrent.
Duty, Short-Time. Operation at a substantially constant load for a short and definite, specified time.
Duty, Varying. Operation at loads, and for intervals of time, both of which may be subject to wide variation.
Dwelling Unit. A single unit, providing complete and independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, cooking, and sanitation.
Dwelling, One-Family. A building that consists solely of one dwelling unit.
Dwelling, Two-Family. A building that consists solely of two dwelling units.
Dwelling, Multifamily. A building that contains three or more dwelling units.
Effective Ground-Fault Current Path. An intentionally constructed, low-impedance electrically conductive path designed and intended to carry current underground-fault conditions from the point of a guard fault on a wiring system to the electrical supply source and that facilitates the operation of the overcurrent protective device or ground fault detectors.
Effective Power Production and Distribution Network. Power production, distribution, and utilization equipment and facilities, such as electric utility systems that deliver power to the connected loads, that are external to and not controlled by an interactive system.
Electric Sign .A fixed, stationary, or portable self-contained, electrically operated and/or electrically illuminated utilization equipment with words or symbols designed to convey information or attract attention.
Electric Discharged Lighting. System of illumination utilizing fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, or neon tubing.
Electrical Practitioner, Licensed. A Registered Master Electrician (RME), Registered Electrical Engineer (REE) or Professional Electrical Engineer (PEE) who has a knowledge of electrical engineering and/or training in electrical installations and practices, and has complied with the requirements of the Republic Act 7920 or national electrical engineering law.
Electronically Actuated Fuse. An overcurrent protective device that generally consists of a control module that provides current-sensing, electronically derived time-current characteristics, energy to initiate tripping, and an interrupting module that interrupts current when an overcurrent occurs. Such fuses may or may not operate in a current-limiting fashion, depending on the type of control selected.
Enclosed. Surrounded by a case, housing, fence, or wall(s) that prevents persons from accidentally contacting energized parts.
Enclosure. The case or housing of apparatus, or the fence or walls surrounding an installation to prevent personnel from accidentally contacting energized parts or to protect the equipment from physical damage.
FPN: See Table 184.108.40.206 for examples of enclosure types.
Equipment. A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, luminaires, apparatus, and the like used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical installation.
Explosionproof Equipment. Equipment enclosed in a case that is capable of withstanding an explosion of a specified gas or vapor that may occur within it and of preventing the ignition of a specified gas or vapor surrounding the enclosure by sparks, flashes, or explosion of the gas or vapor within, and that operates at such an external temperature that a surrounding flammable atmosphere will not be ignited thereby.
FPN: For further information, see ANSI/UL 1203-2009, Explosion-Proof and Dust- Ignition-Proof Electrical Equipment for Use in Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Exposed (as applied to live parts). Capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person. It is applied to parts that are not suitably guarded, isolated, or insulated.
Exposed (as applied to wiring methods). On or attached to the surface or behind panels designed to allow access.
Externally Operable. Capable of being operated without exposing the operator to contact with live parts.
Feeder. All circuit conductors between the service equipment, the source of a separately derived system, or other power supply source and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device.
Festoon Lighting. A string of outdoor lights that is suspended between two points.
Fitting. An accessory such as a locknut, bushing, or other part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical rather than an electrical function.
Garage. A building or portion of a building in which one or more self-propelled vehicles can be kept for use, sale, storage, rental, repair, exhibition, or demonstration purposes.
FPN: For commercial garages, repair and storage, see Article 5.11.
Ground. The earth.
Grounded (Grounding). Connected (connecting) to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
Grounded, Solidly. Connected to ground without inserting any resistor or impedance device.
Grounded Conductor. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). A device intended for the protection of personnel that functions to de-energize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds the values established for a Class A device.
FPN: Class A ground-fault circuit interrupters trip when the current to ground has a value in the range of 4 mA to 6 mA. For further information, see UL 943, Standard for Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters.
Ground-Fault Current Path. An electrically conductive path from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system through normally non-current-carrying conductors, equipment, or the earth to electrical supply source.
FPN: Examples of ground-fault current paths are any combination of equipment grounding conductors, metallic raceways, metallic cable sheaths, electrical equipment, and any other electrically conductive material such as metal, water, and gas piping, stucco mesh, metal ducting, reinforcing steel, shields of communications cables, and the earth itself.
Ground-Fault Protection of Equipment. A system intended to provide protection of equipment from damaging line-to-ground fault currents by operating to cause a disconnecting means to open all ungrounded conductors of the faulted circuit. This protection is provided at current levels less than those required to protect conductors from damage through the operation of a supply circuit overcurrent device.
Grounding Conductor, Equipment (EGC). The conductive path(s) that provides a ground-fault current path and connects normally non-current carrying metal parts of equipment together and to the system grounded conductor or to the grounding electrode conductor, or both.
FPN No.1: It is recognized that the equipment grounding conductor also performs bonding.
FPN No. 2: See 220.127.116.11 for the list of acceptable equipment grounding conductors.
Grounding Electrode. A device that establishes an electrical connection to the earth.
Grounding Electrode Conductor. The conductor used to connect the grounding electrode(s) to the equipment grounding conductor, to the grounded conductor, or to both, at the service, at each building or structure where supplied by a feeder(s) or branch circuit(s), or at the source of a separately derived system.
Guarded. Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, screens, mats, or platforms to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.
Guest Room. An accommodation combining living, sleeping, sanitary, and storage facilities within a compartment.
Guest Suite. An accommodation with two or more contiguous rooms comprising a compartment, with or without doors between such rooms, that provides living, sleeping, sanitary, and storage facilities.
Handhole Enclosure. An enclosure identified for use in underground systems, provided with an open or closed bottom, and sized to allow personnel to reach into, but not enter, for the purpose of installing, operating, or maintaining equipment or wiring or both.
Hermetic Refrigerant Motor-Compressor. A combination consisting of a compressor and motor, both of which are enclosed in the same housing, with no external shaft or shaft seals, with the motor operating in the refrigerant.
Hermetically Sealed [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Equipment sealed against the entrance of an external atmosphere where the seal is made by fusion, for example, soldering, brazing, welding, or the fusion of glass to metal.
Hoistway. Any shaftway, hatchway, well hole, or other vertical opening or space in which an elevator or dumbwaiter is designed to operate.
Hybrid System. A system comprised of multiple power sources. These power sources could include photovoltaic, wind, micro-hydro generators, engine-driven generators, and others, but do not include electric power production and distribution network systems. Energy storage systems such as batteries, flywheels, or superconducting magnetic storage equipment do not constitute a power source for the purpose of this definition. The energy regenerated by an overhauling (descending) elevator does not constitute a power source for the purpose of this definition.
Identified (as applied to equipment). Recognizable as suitable for the specific purpose, function, use, environment, application, and so forth, where described in a particular Code requirement.
FPN: Some examples of ways to determine suitability of equipment for a specific purpose, environment, or application include investigations by a qualified testing laboratory (listing and labeling), an inspection agency, or other organizations concerned with product evaluation.
In Sight From (Within Sight From, Within Sight).Where this Code specifies that one equipment shall be “in sight from,” “within sight from,” or “within sight,” and so forth, of another equipment, the specified equipment is to be visible and not more than 15 m distant from the other.
Industrial Control Panel. An assembly of two or more components consisting of one of the following: (1) power circuit components only, such as motor controller, overload relays, fused disconnect switches, and circuit breakers; (2) control circuit components only, such as push buttons, pilot lights, selector switches, and control relays; (3) a combination of power and control circuit components. These components, with associated wiring and terminals, are mounted on, or contained within, an enclosure or mounted on a subpanel.
The industrial control panel does not include the controlled equipment.
Information Technology Equipment (ITE). Equipment and systems rated 1000 volts or less, normally found in offices or other business establishments and similar environments classified as ordinary locations, that are used for creation and manipulation of data, voice, video, and similar signals that are not communications equipment as defined in Part 1.0.1 and do not process communications circuits as defined in 18.104.22.168.
FPN: For information on listing requirements for both information technology equipment and communications equipment, see UL 60950-1-2014, Information Technology Equipment – Safety – Part 1: General Requirements or UL 62368-1-2014, Audio/Video Information and Communication Technology Equipment Part 1 Safety Requirements.
Innerduct. A nonmetallic raceway placed within a larger raceway.
Interactive Inverter. An inverter intended for use in parallel with an electric utility to supply common loads that may deliver power to the utility.
Interactive System. An electric power production system that is operating in parallel with and capable of delivering energy to an electric primary source supply system.
Interrupting Rating. The highest current at rated voltage that a device is intended to interrupt under standard test conditions.
FPN: Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than fault levels may have its interrupting rating implied in other ratings, such as horsepower or locked rotor current.
Intersystem Bonding Termination. A device that provides a means for connecting intersystem bonding conductors for communications systems to the grounding electrode system.
Intrinsically Safe Apparatus. Apparatus in which all the circuits are intrinsically safe.
Intrinsically Safe System [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. An assembly of interconnected intrinsically safe apparatus, associated apparatus, and interconnecting cables, in that those parts of the system that may be used in hazardous (classified) locations are intrinsically safe circuits.
FPN: An intrinsically safe system may include more than one intrinsically safe circuit.
Isolated (as applied to location). Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.
Kitchen. An area with a sink and permanent provisions for food preparation and cooking.
Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization that is concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.
Lighting Outlet. An outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder, a luminaire (lighting fixture), or a pendant cord terminating in a lampholder.
Lighting Track (Track Lighting). A manufactured assembly designed to support and energize luminaires that are capable of being readily repositioned on the track. Its length can be altered by the addition or subtraction of sections of track.
Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a list published by an organization that is concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states that the equipment, material, or services either meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
FPN: The means for identifying listed equipment may vary for each organization concerned with product evaluation, some of which do not recognize equipment as listed unless it is also labeled. Use of the system employed by the listing organization allows the Office of the Building Official/EE to identify a listed product.
Live Parts. Energized conductive components.
Location, Damp. Locations protected from weather and not subject to saturation with water or other liquids but subject to moderate degrees of moisture
FPN: Examples of such locations include partially protected locations under canopies, marquees, roofed open porches, and like locations, and interior locations subject to moderate degrees of moisture, such as some basements, some barns, and some cold storage warehouses.
Location, Dry. A location not normally subject to dampness or wetness. A location classified as dry may be temporarily subject to dampness or wetness, as in the case of a building under construction.
Location, Wet. Installations under ground or in concrete slabs or masonry in direct contact with the earth; in locations subject to saturation with water or other liquids, such as vehicle washing areas; and in unprotected locations exposed to weather.
Luminaire. A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps and ballast (where applicable), and to connect the lamps to the power supply.
Mobile Equipment. Equipment with electrical components suitable to be moved only with mechanical aids or is provided with wheels for movement by person(s) or powered devices.
Motor Control Center. An assembly of one or more enclosed sections having a common power bus and principally containing motor control units.
Multioutlet Assembly. A type of surface, flush, or freestanding raceway designed to hold conductors and receptacles, assembled in the field or at the factory.
National Electrical Engineering Law. A law enacted by Congress providing for a more responsive and comprehensive regulation for the practice, licensing and registration of electrical engineers and electricians otherwise referred to as Republic Act 7920 (RA 7920) or a future law that supersedes it.
Neutral Conductor. The conductor connected to the neutral point of a system that is intended to carry current under normal conditions.
Neutral Point. The common point on a wye-connection in a polyphase system or midpoint on a single-phase, 3-wire system, or midpoint of single-phase portion of a 3-phase delta system, or a midpoint of a 3-wire, direct-current system.
FPN: At the neutral point of the system, the vectorial sum of the nominal voltage from all other phases within the system that utilize the neutral, with respect to the neutral point, is zero potential.
Nonautomatic. Requiring human intervention to perform a function.
Nonconductive Optical Fiber Cable. A factory assembly of one or more optical fibers having an overall covering and containing no electrically conductive materials.
Nonincendive Circuit [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. A circuit, other than field wiring, in which any arc or thermal effect produced under intended operating conditions of the equipment, is not capable, under specified test conditions, of igniting the flammable gas-air, vapor-air, or dust-air mixture.
FPN: Conditions are described in ANSI/ISA-12.12.01-2013, Nonincendive Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Nonincendive Component [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. A component having contacts for making or breaking an incendive circuit and the contacting mechanism is constructed so that the component is incapable of igniting the specified flammable gas-air or vapor-air mixture. The housing of a nonincendive component is not intended to exclude the flammable atmosphere or contain an explosion.
FPN: For further information, see ANSI/ISA-12.12.01-2013, Nonincendive Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Nonincendive Equipment [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Equipment having electrical/electronic circuitry that is incapable, under normal operating conditions, of causing ignition of a specified flammable gas-air, vapor-air, or dust-air mixture due to arcing or thermal means.
FPN: For further information, see ANSI/ISA-12.12.01-2013, Nonincendive Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Nonincendive Field Wiring [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Wiring that enters or leaves an equipment enclosure and, under normal operating conditions of the equipment, is not capable, due to arcing or thermal effects, of igniting the flammable gas-air, vapor-air, or dust-air mixture. Normal operation includes opening, shorting, or grounding the field wiring.
Nonincendive Field Wiring Apparatus [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Apparatus intended to be connected to nonincendive field wiring.
FPN: For further information, see ANSI/ISA-12.12.01-2013, Nonincendive Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations.
Nonlinear Load. A load where the wave shape of the steady-state current does not follow the wave shape of the applied voltage.
FPN: Electronic equipment, electronic/electric-discharge lighting, adjustable-speed drive systems, and similar equipment may be nonlinear loads.
Oil Immersion [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Electrical equipment immersed in a protective liquid in such a way that an explosive atmosphere that may be above the liquid or outside the enclosure cannot be ignited.
Optical Fiber Cable. A factory assembly or field assembly of one or more optical fibers having an overall covering.
FPB: A field-assembled optical fiber cable is an assembly of one or more optical fibers within a jacket. The jacket, without optical fibers, is installed in a manner similar to conduit or raceway. Once the jacket is installed, the optical fibers are inserted into the jacket, completing the cable assembly.
Outlet. A point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.
Outline Lighting. An arrangement of incandescent lamps, electric discharge lighting, or other electrically powered light sources to outline or call attention to certain features such as the shape of a building or the decoration of a window.
Overcurrent. Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. It may result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault.
FPN: A current in excess of rating may be accommodated by certain equipment and conductors for a given set of conditions. Therefore, the rules for overcurrent protection are specific for particular situations.
Overcurrent Protective Device, Branch-Circuit. A device capable of providing protection for service, feeder, and branch circuits and equipment over the full range of overcurrents between its rate current and its interrupting rating. Such devices are provided with interrupting ratings appropriate for the intended use but no less than 5000 amperes.
Overcurrent Protective Device, Supplementary. A device intended to provide limited overcurrent protection for specific applications and utilization equipment such as luminaires and appliances. This limited protection is in addition to the protection provided in the required branch circuit by the branch-circuit overcurrent protective device.
Overload. Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full-load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity that, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload.
Panelboard. A single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel, including buses and automatic overcurrent devices, and equipped with or without switches for the control of light, heat, or power circuits; designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box placed in or against a wall, partition, or other support; and accessible only from the front.
Photovoltaic (PV) System. The total components and subsystem that, in combination, convert solar energy into electric energy suitable for connection to a utilization load.
Plenum. A compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected and that forms part of the air distribution system.
Portable Equipment. Equipment with electrical components suitable to be moved by a single person without mechanical aids.
Power Outlet. An enclosed assembly that may include receptacles, circuit breakers, fuseholders, fused switches, buses, and watt-hour meter mounting means; intended to supply and control power to mobile homes, recreational vehicles, park trailers, or boats or to serve as a means for distributing power required to operate mobile or temporarily installed equipment.
Premises Wiring (System). That interior and exterior wiring, including power, lighting, control, and signal circuit wiring together with all their associated hardware, fittings, and wiring devices, both permanently and temporarily installed, that extends from the service point or source of power, such as a battery, a solar photovoltaic system, or a generator, transformer, or converter windings, to the outlet(s).
Such wiring does not include wiring internal to appliances, luminaires (fixtures), motors, controllers, motor control centers, and similar equipment.
FPN: Power sources include, but are not limited to, interconnected or stand-alone batteries, solar photovoltaic systems, other distributed generation systems, or generators.
Pressurized [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. The process of supplying an enclosure with a protective gas with or without continuous flow, at sufficient pressure to prevent the entrance of combustible dust or ignitable fibers/flyings.
Process Seal [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. A seal between electrical systems and flammable or combustible process fluids where a failure could allow the migration of process fluids into the premise’s wiring system.
Purged and Pressurized [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. The process of (1) purging, supplying an enclosure with a protective gas at a sufficient flow and positive pressure to reduce the concentration of any flammable gas or vapor initially present to an acceptable level; and (2) pressurization, supplying to an enclosure with a protective gas with or without continuous flow at sufficient pressure to prevent the entrance of flammable gas or vapor, a combustible dust, or an ignitable fiber.
Qualified Person. One who has qualifications, skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of electrical equipment and installations and has received safety training to recognize and avoid hazards involved.
FPN: Qualifications can include those included in the Republic Act 7920 or national electrical engineering law.
Raceway. An enclosed channel of metal or nonmetallic materials designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this Code.
FPN: A raceway is identified within specific article definitions.
Rainproof. Constructed, protected, or treated so as to prevent rain from interfering with the successful operation of the apparatus under specified test conditions.
Raintight. Constructed or protected so that exposure to a beating rain will not result in the entrance of water under specified test conditions.
Receptacle. A contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of an attachment plug, or for the direct connection of electrical utilization equipment designed to mate with the corresponding contact device. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is two or more contact devices on the same yoke.
Receptacle Outlet. An outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.
Remote-Control Circuit. Any electric circuit that controls any other circuit through a relay or an equivalent device.
Retrofit Kit. A general term for a complete subassembly of parts and devices for field conversion of utilization equipment.
Sealable Equipment. Equipment enclosed in a case or cabinet that is provided with a means of sealing or locking so that live parts cannot be made accessible without opening the enclosure. The equipment may or may not be operable without opening the enclosure.
FPN: The equipment may or may not be operable without opening the enclosure.
Separately Derived System. An electrical source, other than a service, having no direct connection(s) to circuit conductors of any other electrical source other than those established by grounding and bonding connections.
Service. The conductors and equipment for delivering electric energy from the serving utility to the wiring system of the premises served.
Service Cable. Service conductors made up in the form of a cable.
Service Conductors. The conductors from the service point to the service disconnecting means.
Service Conductors, Overhead. The overhead conductors between the service point and the first point of connection to the service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.
Service Conductors, Underground. The underground conductors between the service point and the first point of connection to the service-entrance conductors in a terminal box, meter, or other enclosure, inside or outside the building wall.
FPN: Where there is no terminal box, meter, or other enclosure, the point of connection is considered to be the point of entrance of the service conductors into the bulding.
Service Equipment. The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker(s) or switch(es) and fuse(s) and their accessories, connected to the load end of service conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise designated area, and intended to constitute the main control and cutoff of the supply.
Service Lateral. The underground conductors between the utility electric supply system and the service point.
Service Point. The point of connection between the facilities of the serving utility and the premises wiring.
FPN: The service point can be described as the point of demarcation between where the serving utility ends and the premises wiring begins. The serving utility generally specifies the location of the service point based on the conditions of service.
Service Protective Device. Enclosed fusible switch or circuit breaker installed ahead of the service equipment, nearest the service point (usually, immediately after the metering equipment), intended to provide short circuit fault protection for service-entrance conductors.
Short-Circuit Current Rating. The prospective symmetrical fault current at a nominal voltage to which an apparatus or system is able to be connected without sustaining damage exceeding defined acceptance criteria.
Show Window. Any window used or designed to be used for the display of goods or advertising material, whether it is fully or partly enclosed or entirely open at the rear and whether or not it has a platform raised higher than the street floor level.
Signaling Circuit. Any electric circuit that energizes signaling equipment.
Simple Apparatus [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. An electrical component or combination of components of simple construction with well-defined electrical parameters that does not generate more than 1.5 volts, 100mA, and 25 mW, or a passive component that does not dissipate more than 1.3 watts and it compatible with the intrinsic safety of the circuit in which it is used.
FPN: The following apparatus are examples of simple apparatus:
- Passive components, for example, switches, junction boxes, resistance temperature devices, and simple semiconductor devices such as LEDs
- Sources of stored energy consisting of single components in simple circuits with well-defined parameters, for example, capacitors or inductors, whos value are considered when determining the overall safety of the system.
- Sources of generated energy, for example, thermocouples and photocells, that do not generate more than 1.5 volts, 100 mA, and 25 mW.
Stand-Alone System. A system that supplies power independently of an electrical production and distribution network.
Structure. That which is built or constructed, other than equipment.
Surge Arrester. A protective device for limiting surge voltage by discharging or bypassing surge current; it also prevents continued flow of follow current while remaining capable of repeating these functions.
Surge-Protective Device (SPD). A protective device for limiting transient voltages by diverting or limiting surge current; it also prevents continued flow of follow current while remaining capable of repeating these functions and it designated as follows:
- Type 1: Permanently connected SPDs intended for installation between the secondary of the service transformer and the line side of the service disconnect overcurrent device.
- Type 2: Permanently connected SPDs intended for installation on the load side of the service disconnect overcurrent device, including SPDs located at the branch panel.
- Type 3: Point of utilization SPDs.
- Type 4: Component SPDs, including discrete components, as well as assemblies.
FPN: For further information on Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, and Type 4 SPDs, see UL 1449, Standard for Surge Protective Devices.
Switch, Bypass Isolation. A manually operated device used in conjunction with a transfer switch to provide a means of directly connecting load conductors to a power source and of disconnecting the transfer switch.
Switch, General-Use. A switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes, and it is capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage.
Switch, General-Use Snap. A form of general-use switch constructed so that it can be installed in device boxes or on box covers, or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems recognized by this Code.
Switch, Isolating. A switch intended for isolating an electric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting rating, and it is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some other means.
Switch, Motor-Circuit. A switch rated in horsepower that is capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated voltage.
Switch, Transfer. An automatic or nonautomatic device for transferring one or more load conductor connections from one power source to another.
Switchboard. A large single panel, frame, or assembly of panels on which are mounted on the face, back, or both, switches, overcurrent and other protective devices, buses, and usually instruments. Switchboards are generally accessible from the rear as well as from the front and are not intended to be installed in cabinets.
Switchgear. An assembly completely enclosed on all sides and top with sheet metal (except for ventilating opening and inspection windows) and containing primary power circuit switching, interrupting devices, or both, with buses and connections. The assembly may include control and auxiliary devices. Access to the interior of the enclosure is provided by doors, removable covers, or both.
FPN: All switchgear subject to PEC 1 requirements is metal enclosed. Switchgear rated below 1000 V or less may be identified as “low-voltage power circuit breaker switchgear.” Switchgear rated over 1000 V may be identified as “metal-enclosed switchgear” or “metal-clad switchgear.” Switchgear is available in non-arc-resistant or arc-resistant constructions.
Thermal Protector (as applied to motors). A protective device for assembly as an integral part of a motor or motor-compressor that, when properly applied, protects the motor against dangerous overheating due to overload and failure to start.
Thermally Protected (as applied to motors). The words Thermally Protected appearing on the nameplate of a motor or motor- compressor indicate that the motor is provided with a thermal protector.
Unclassified Locations [as applied to Hazardous (Classified) Locations]. Locations determined to be neither Class I, Division 1; Class I, Division 2; Class I, Zone 0; Class I, Zone 1; Class I, Zone 2; Class II, Division 1; Class II, Division 2; Class III, Division 1; Class III, Division 2; Zone 20; Zone 21; Zone 22; nor any combination thereof.
Ungrounded. Not connected to ground or to a conductive body that extends the ground connection.
Uninterruptible Power Supply. A power supply used to provide alternating current power to a load for some period of time in the event of a power failure.
FPN: In addition, it may provide a more constant voltage and frequency supply to the load, reducing the effects of voltage and frequency variations.
Utilization Equipment. Equipment that utilizes electric energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, lighting, or similar purposes.
Ventilated. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes, or vapors.
Volatile Flammable Liquid. A flammable liquid having a flash point below 38°C, or a flammable liquid whose temperature is above its flash point, or a Class II combustible liquid that has a vapor pressure not exceeding 276 kPa at 38°C and whose temperature is above its flash point.
Voltage (of a circuit). The greatest root-mean-square (rms) (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit concerned.
FPN: Some systems, such as 3-phase 4-wire, single-phase 3-wire, and 3-wire direct current, may have various circuits of various voltages.
Voltage, Nominal. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (e.g.,120/240 volts, 480Y/277 volts, 600 volts). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment.
FPN No. 1: See ANSI C84.1-1995, Voltage Ratings for Electric Power Systems and Equipment (60 Hz).
FPN No. 2: Certain battery units may be considered to be rated at nominal 48 volts dc, but may have a charging float voltage up to 58 volts. In dc applications, 60 volts is used to cover the entire range of float voltages.
Voltage to Ground. For grounded circuits, the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit that is grounded; for ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.
Watertight. Constructed so that moisture will not enter the enclosure under specified test conditions.
Weatherproof. Constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation.
FPN: Rainproof, raintight, or watertight equipment can fulfill the requirements for weatherproof where varying weather conditions other than wetness, such as snow, ice, dust, or temperature extremes, are not a factor.
1.1.2 Over 1000 Volts, Nominal
Electronically Actuated Fuse.An overcurrent protective device that generally consists of a control module that provides current sensing, electronically derived time-current characteristics, energy to initiate tripping, and an interrupting module that interrupts current when an overcurrent occurs. Electronically actuated fuses may or may not operate in a current-limiting fashion, depending on the type of control selected.
Fuse. An overcurrent protective device with a circuit-opening fusible part that is heated and severed by the passage of overcurrent through it.
FPN: A fuse comprises all the parts that form a unit capable of performing the prescribed functions. It may or may not be the complete device necessary to connect it into an electrical circuit.
Controlled Vented Power Fuse. A fuse with provision for controlling discharge circuit interruption such that no solid material may be exhausted into the surrounding atmosphere.
FPN: The fuse is designed so that discharged gases will not ignite or damage insulation in the path of the discharge or propagate a flashover to or between grounded members or conduction members in the path of the discharge where the distance between the vent and such insulation or conduction members conforms to manufacturer’s recommendations.
Expulsion Fuse Unit (Expulsion Fuse). A vented fuse unit in which the expulsion effect of gases produced by the arc and lining of the fuseholder, either alone or aided by a spring, extinguishes the arc.
Nonvented Power Fuse. A fuse without intentional provision for the escape of arc gases, liquids, or solid particles to the atmosphere during circuit interruption.
Power Fuse Unit. A vented, nonvented, or controlled vented fuse unit in which the arc is extinguished by being drawn through solid material, granular material, or liquid, either alone or aided by a spring.
Vented Power Fuse. A fuse with provision for the escape of arc gases, liquids, or solid particles to the surrounding atmosphere during circuit interruption.
Multiple Fuse. An assembly of two or more single-pole fuses.
Substation. An assemblage of equipment (e.g., switches, interrupting devices, circuit breakers, buses, and transformers) through which electric energy is passed for the purpose of distribution, switching, or modifying its characteristics.
Switching Device. A device designed to close, open, or both, one or more electric circuits.
Circuit Breaker. A switching device capable of making, carrying, and interrupting currents under normal circuit conditions, and also of making, carrying for a specified time, and interrupting currents under specified abnormal circuit conditions, such as those of short circuit.
Cutout. An assembly of a fuse support with either a fuseholder, fuse carrier, or disconnecting blade. The fuseholder or fuse carrier may include a conducting element (fuse link) or may act as the disconnecting blade by the inclusion of a nonfusible member.
Disconnecting (or Isolating) Switch (Disconnector, Isolator). A mechanical switching device used for isolating a circuit or equipment from a source of power.
Disconnecting Means. A device, group of devices, or other means whereby the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.
Interrupter Switch. A switch capable of making, carrying, and interrupting specified currents.
Oil Cutout (Oil-Filled Cutout). A cutout in which all or part of the fuse support and its fuse link or disconnecting blade is mounted in oil with complete immersion of the contacts and the fusible portion of the conducting element (fuse link) so that arc interruption by severing of the fuse link or by opening of the contacts will occur under oil.
Oil Switch. A switch having contacts that operate under oil (or askarel or other suitable liquid).
Regulator Bypass Switch. A specific device or combination of devices designed to bypass a regulator.